2050 Pathway Platform
The pathway platform is a multistakeholder initiative launched at COP 22 by Laurence Tubiana Hakim El Haite to support countries seeking to develop long term, net zero-GHG, climate-resilient and sustainable pathways. 22 countries have started or are about to start the process of preparing the pathway, while 15 cities, 17 states, regions and cities and 196 businesses have joined the agreement. Many others are expected to join.
The initiative is expected to be a clear signal to the market and investors that the Paris Agreement and the global movement towards sustainability isn’t going anywhere and thereby a good message to businesses – sustainability is here to stay, so invest in it.
Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT)
The fund, which is now “open for business”, will help build mutual trust and confidence among countries. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), a multilateral funding arm, announced and welcomed CBIT, supported by 11 developed countries providing 50 million USD -worth of funding, last week at COP.
In the words of Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, “Confidence and cooperation are going to be key to the success of the Paris Climate Change Agreement – now and over the years and decades to come”.
Adaptation Fund (AF)
The continuous survival of the AF was one of the big questions during this COP. In the end of the week, countries pledged more than 81 million USD to the fund, surpassing its target for the year, and secured its continious operation as an effective mechanism to small project adaptation funding in developing countries – at least for the time being.
It is arguably important that the AF maintains operational since worries exist that funding for adaptation, without the AF, would only fall under the big umbrella of the GCF instead – and that the funding for small, local adaptation projects will fall in the shadow of the larger and more economically incentivised investments concerning both mitigation and adaptation.
The Warsaw International Mechanism of Loss and Damage (WIM)
Loss and damage is when climate change goes beyond what it is possible to adapt to. The work surrounding the mechanism has been slow and full of disagreements amongst countries. The COP in Marrakech this year was first planned to be a “COP of loss and damages”, but this wasn’t needed since COP21 managed to recognize loss and damages in the Paris Agreement (Article 8.3).
At this COP, a new five year framework that will deal with impacts that are not addressed through planned adaptation were presented, including displacement, migration and human mobility and comprehensive risk management.
First CMA1 partially adjourned (to 2017 and 2018)
As we all know, the Paris Agreement was ratified and came into force much quicker then the world expected. Therefore, the question of how to deal with many of the important decisions needed to be adressed (as is obligatory according to the Paris Agreement) at the first CMA after the Paris agreement’s entering into force was a big question mark during this COP. The parties decided to partially adjourn the CMA1 to both COP23 in Germany (hosted by Fiji) and COP24 in Poland – meaning many of the important decisions concerning the Paris Agreement will be decided upon there instead. Read the decision here: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2016/cop22/eng/l12.pdf
Implementation of climate change made a big step forward by launching the NDC Partnership – a coalition of developing and developed countries and international institutions working together to ensure countries receive the technical and financial support they need to meet their climate and sustainable development goals.
In conjunction with the launch, the new NDC partnership unveiled the NDC Funding & Initiatives Navigator, the world’s most comprehensive online database of climate finance and support initiatives.
Climate fund for developing countries
OECD projections suggest that developed countries will have stumped up just one fifth of the initial funds needed for adapting to climate change of a $100bn-a-year global climate fund which is due to launch in 2020.
Countries pledged over 23 million to the Climate Technology Centre and Network, which supports developing countries with climate technology development and transfer.
The formation of a ‘rule book’ was one essential outcome of the negotiations in Marrakech. The parties agreed upon writing an operational manual of the Paris Agreement, in which set rules and transparency of action enable countries to share and have confidence in evaluating each other’s climate pledges. The rulebook also includes measuring tools and accounting emissions reductions, provision of climate finance as well as technology development and transfer to other parties. The rulebook is set to be finished in 2018.
COP22 also marked a new era of addressing the concerns and needs of indigenous people in the climate process by taking the first steps building upon the Paris Agreement in making the local communities and indigenous people platform operational. The platform will enable an exchange of experiences and sharing of best practises on mitigation and adaptation, which in turn will lead to more climate actions.
Isabel, Emmi and Laura
References and links for further information